Network transparency is basically one of the properties of distributed database. According to this property, a distributed database must be network transparent. Network transparency means that a user must be unaware about the operational details of the network.
Actually in distributed databases when a user wants to access data and if that particular data does not exist on user computer then it is the responsibility of DBMS to provide the data from any other computer where it exists. User does not know about this thing as from where data is coming.
Network transparency also means roaming transparency and it gives the freedom of entering query from any workstation to a user. So a user does not know from where the results of query are coming as results may be coming from user workstation or any other workstation. Here the term roaming means that if a user moves from one place to other then all other users does not know about this.
If a user enter a query to access data and query does not find the data in his/her computer then query goes to the other places and user does not know about this. It means that one any thing moves from one place to other it does not affect on the processing of the data as well as on the whole network.
In centralized database systems, the only available resource that needs to be shielded from the user is the data. (The storage system). In a distributed database management environment, however, there is a second recourse that needs to be managed in much the same manner: the network. Preferably, the user should be protected from the operational details of the network. Furthermore, it is desirable to hide even the existence of the network, if possible.
Then there would be no difference between database applications that would run on a centralized database and those that would run on a distributed database. This type of transparency is referred to as "network transparency" or distribution transparency ".
One can consider network transparency from the view point of either the services provided or the data from the formal prospective , it is desirable to have uniform means by which services are accessed from a DBMS perspective ,distribution transparency requires that user do not have to specify where data is stored. Some have separated distribution transparency into two: location transparency and naming transparency location transparency refers to the fact that the command used to perform a task is independent of both the location of the data and the system on which the operation is carried out.