A closed circuit is a wanted condition - it means that the circuit is complete and current can therefore flow through.
A short circuit is a closed circuit where the current does not encounter any significant resistance.
A closed circuit is a circuit where current can flow, so long as it carries resistance.
A closed circuit has a complete path for current to flow. An open circuit doesn't, which means that it's not functional. If this is your first exposure to circuits, you might think that when a circuit is open, it's like an open door or gate that current can flow through. And when it's closed, it's like a shut door that current can't flow through. Actually, it's just the opposite, so it might take awhile to get used to this concept.
A short circuit is a low-resistance path, usually made unintentionally, that bypasses part of a circuit. This can happen when two bare wires in a circuit touch each other. The part of the circuit bypassed by the short circuit ceases to function, and a large amount of current could start to flow. This can generate a lot of heat in the wires and cause a fire. As a safety measure, fuses and circuit breakers automatically open the circuit when there is an excessive current.