Internet data is transferred through the TCP/IP networking protocols that are designed to communicate data. When it is transmitted, the data is split into fragments called packets. A router is designed to direct these packets to the correct destination along the best possible route, hence the name, router.
Routers range in size from the small ones we have in our homes and that are available from computer shops and from Internet Service Providers, to absolutely huge models that manage huge flows of data between computer networks and throughout the Internet. The smaller, home-based models make it possible to share one Internet connection between a few computers on the network, and this enables more than one person to use it, whereas the larger ones are far more intricate and have many multi-function routing devices.
Routers come in two basic types: Dynamic and static. The dynamic comes already programmed to manage data traffic across the network, which is managed by a routing protocol, whereas a static router needs to be manually configured by a network administrator who programs all of the necessary routes that are needed for data packets.
Essential services and utilities can be integrated into a network so that it is more secure and responds more efficiently. For example, a router can be made to incorporate a security feature such as a firewall for added protection against viruses and other nasties that have the ability to destroy computers and enable hackers to gather our personal information. It is also possible to increase network function by integrating services such as IP voice, or video capability.