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List Down Any Two Types Of Computer Crimes That Occur Over Cyber Space. Also Discuss Very Briefly The Methods That Can Be Used To Minimize The Ill Effects Of Listed Crimes?

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Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
Solution:
1. Cyber terrorism:
  Cyber terrorism is the leveraging of a target's computers and information, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruption of infrastructure.
Public interest in cyber terrorism began in the late 1980s. As the year 2000 approached, the fear and uncertainty about the millennium bug heightened and interest in potential cyber terrorist attacks also increased. However, although the millennium bug was by no means a terrorist attack or plot against the world or the United States, it did act as a catalyst in sparking the fears of a possibly large-scale devastating cyber-attack. Commentators noted that many of the facts of such incidents seemed to change, often with exaggerated media reports.

One example of cyber terrorists, in May 2007 Estonia was subjected to a mass cyber-attack in the wake of the removal of a Russian World War II war memorial from downtown Talinn. The attack was a distributed denial-of-service attack in which selected sites were bombarded with traffic in order to force them offline; nearly all Estonian government ministry networks as well as two major Estonian bank networks were knocked offline; in addition, the political party website of Estonia's current Prime Minister Andrus Ansip featured a counterfeit letter of apology from Ansip for removing the memorial statue. Despite speculation that the attack had been coordinated by the Russian government, Estonia's defense minister admitted he had no evidence linking cyber attacks to Russian authorities. Russia called accusations of its involvement "unfounded," and neither NATO nor European experts were able to find any proof of official Russian government participation. In January 2008 a man from Estonia was convicted for launching the attacks against the Estonian Reform Party website and fined.

In 1999 hackers attacked NATO computers. The computers flooded them with email and hit them with a denial of service (DoS). The hackers were protesting against the NATO bombings in Kosovo. Businesses, public organizations and academic institutions were bombarded with highly politicized emails containing viruses from other European countries.
Tahira Naseem Profile
Tahira Naseem answered
Cyber crime is the leveraging of a target's computers and information, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruptio internet. Cyber crime is the leveraging of a target's computers and information, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruption of infrastructure.
Issues surrounding computer crime have become high-profile, particularly those
surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming.
There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted,
lawfully or otherwise.
   People started to take interest in cyber crime the late 1980s. As the year 2000 approached, the fear and uncertainty about the millennium bug heightened and interest in potential cyber terrorist attacks also increased. However, although the millennium bug was by no means a terrorist attack or plot against the world or the United States, it did act as a catalyst in sparking the fears of a possibly large-scale devastating cyber-attack. Commentators noted that many of the facts of such incidents seemed to change, often with exaggerated media reports.

One example of cyber terrorists, in May 2007 Estonia was subjected to a mass cyber-attack in the wake of the removal of a Russian World War II war memorial from downtown Tallinn. The attack was a distributed denial-of-service attack in which selected sites were bombarded with traffic in order to force them offline; nearly all Estonian government ministry networks as well as two major Estonian bank networks were knocked offline; in addition, the political party website of Estonia's current Prime Minister Andrus An sip featured a counterfeit letter of apology from An sip for removing the memorial statue. Despite speculation that the attack had been coordinated by the Russian government, Estonia's defense minister admitted he had no evidence linking cyber attacks to Russian authorities. Russia called accusations of its involvement "unfounded," and neither NATO nor European experts were able to find any proof of official Russian government participation. In January 2008 a man from Estonia was convicted for launching the attacks against the Estonian Reform Party website and fined.

In 1999 hackers attacked NATO computers. The computers flooded them with email and hit them with a denial of service (DoS). The hackers were protesting against the NATO bombings in Kosovo. Businesses, public organizations and academic institutions were bombarded with highly politicized emails containing viruses from other European countries.

Computer crime encompasses a broad range of potentially illegal activities. Generally,
however, it may be divided into one of two types of categories:
(1) crimes that target computer networks or devices directly;
(2) crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices, the primary target of which is
independent of the computer network or device.

Methods of minimizing to Cyber terrorism:

1. Employ Strong Passwords.
As simple as this sound, it is one of the most overlooked methods of keeping systems safe. There are a number of freely available tools that 'guess' passwords -- a very common technique referred to as 'brute force cracking.' These programs work by repeatedly attempting to log in as a known user and supplying different passwords until successful. Many of these cracking algorithms are very sophisticated and supply the most commonly used passwords first, then start going through dictionary words. Passwords should always be in mixed case and contain at least one number and one special character.

2. Keep Software up to Date.
This is important on all systems. As malicious users discover vulnerabilities in different operating system components or applications, software vendors release patches to these components which mitigate or eliminate these threats. All systems should be regularly updated with vendor patches in order to maintain security. There are a number of services that offer continual update alerts via email.
3. Disable Unnecessary Applications and Services.
Malicious users often gain access to systems at unexpected entry points. One common technique is to scan a system for all active applications or ports and use vulnerable applications as an entry point. These applications may not be necessary to the system's operation. In order to minimize the threat against any system, a prudent user should disable all unnecessary applications or services.
4. Beware of Mail Attachments.
This is one of the most common methods of causing damage. Many email applications today allow for the execution of code in email attachments. Many 'worms' have been released in this manner over the past few years, with effects ranging from relatively harmless propagation of the worm to massive file damage. Users should disable features of their mail application that allow for indiscriminate execution of active code attachments and use a reliable virus scanner that understands email attachments.
Brief definition of hackers  
A hacker is someone who gains unauthorized access to a computer system. Many hackers just like the challenge of breaking through a computer security system but not all hackers are harmless. It must also be said that not all hackers are bad. Government and huge companies use hackers to maintain their security systems. People normally confuse hackers with crackers. While hackers crack the code of passwords to hack into a security system, crackers crack the code of software to bypass its security mechanisms like copyright protection etc. Hacking and cracking are two different methods, but hackers normally possess cracking skills and crackers, hackings skills. Also note that not all hackers are humans. You also get computerized hackers, but they are developed by humans of course.
How can hackers break into my computer system and how do I keep them out?
Hackers gain access to your computer through unguarded ports in your network system. You will need a firewall or anti-hacker software to stop them in their tracks. To prevent hackers from breaching your computer system, use the Firewalls and in trussing Detection Software listed on our Cyber Security Software page.
N of infrastructure.
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
Pornography
The Internet has introduced a growing number of pornography sites that sadly include children. Pornography is a growing crime among Internet users. According to Internet Filter Review, there are 4.2 million pornographic websites. Thirty-four percent of computer users have received unwanted pornographic material on the Internet. Eighty-nine percent of youth in Internet chat rooms have received sexual solicitations. The punishment for child pornography is different in each state. Some states only require that offenders be jailed for one year, while others can impose a 15-year term
Software Piracy
1. With the growing popularity of computer-sharing programs such as Bear-Share, torrents and LimeWire, piracy is becoming a growing problem. People can download or "share" programs instead of purchasing them or getting a license for them. Any time a friend copies software, downloads software from a sharing website or program, or a business doesn't report the numbers of computers using software, it is a form of software piracy. Being convicted of software piracy often involves jail time and large fines.
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
There are three major classes of criminal activity with computers:
Unauthorized use of a computer, which might involve stealing a username and password, or might involve accessing the victim's computer via the Internet through a backdoor operated by a Trojan Horse program.

Creating or releasing a malicious computer program (e.g., computer virus, worm, Trojan Horse).

Harassment and stalking in cyberspace.
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
Spam
Spam, or the unsolicited sending out of junk e-mails for commercial purposes, which is unlawful. New anti-spam laws are being passed in various countries which will hopefully limit the use of unsolicited electronic communications
Computer hacking is the practice of modifying computer hardware and software to accomplish a goal outside of the creator’s original purpose. People who engage in computer hacking activities are often called hackers. Since the word “hack” has long been used to describe someone who is incompetent at his/her profession, some hackers claim this term is offensive and fails to give appropriate recognition to their skills.
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
One way to protect yourself from Web threats without obsessing about your PC's security deficiencies is to use programs that put extra locks on your Web browser
Tahira Naseem Profile
Tahira Naseem answered
BANGALORE: Four cyber crime cases registered in Cyber Crime Police station of CID (Criminal Investigation Department). A loss of about Rs 4 lakhs through phishing and hacking cases were reported.

The hackers have drawn an amount of Rs 2.20 lakh from Srinath Imarati, an administrative officer with a private firm, Bearing Point, to four other accounts by making 10 transactions. His account was with ICICI bank of CMH road branch.

He received a `phishing’ e-mail in the name [email protected] which asked for passwords and other details. He believed the mail and gave details through e-mail. On 22nd he noticed his account was debited of Rs 2,20,500. After consulting the bank officials, he lodged a complaint with CID’s Cyber police.

In another incident, Girish C Rath has lost Rs 49,000 from his Axis bank account. He got to know that some miscreants did a unauthorised transfer of money to their accounts by hacking his e-banking password.

In yet another case, Subrahmanya, a senior consultant with WIPRO has registered a complaint with Cyber Crime Police about hacking of his HDFC account and transferred Rs 28,000 to other account.

In another case, Prasanna Kumar, an engineer of ITPL has lost his Rs 58,000 when he was in South Korea on official duty. The money was transferred by hacking the e-mail ID to one MS Aimsing Shankhil’s account.

The hacker had changed the e-mail ID [email protected] to [email protected] gmail.com and has also changed the mobile number from the account details.
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
Cyber Crime:-
Cyber crime is criminal activity done using computers and the Internet. This includes
anything from downloading illegal music files to stealing millions of dollars from online
bank accounts. Cyber crime also includes non-monetary offenses, such as creating and
distributing viruses on other computers or posting confidential business information on
the Internet.
OR
Issues surrounding computer crime have become high-profile, particularly those
surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming.
There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted,
lawfully or otherwise.
Two Types of Cyber Crime…
Computer crime encompass a broad range of potentially illegal activities. Generally,
however, it may be divided into one of two types of categories:
(1) crimes that target computer networks or devices directly;
(2) crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices, the primary target of which is
independent of the computer network or device.
Examples of crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices would include,
• Malware (malicious code)
• Denial-of-service attacks
• Computer viruses
Examples of crimes that merely use computer networks or devices would include,
• Cyber stalking
• Fraud and identity theft
• Phishing scams
• Information warfare
More Examples…..
*Fraud achieved by the manipulation of computer records.
* Spamming wherever outlawed completely or where regulations controlling it
are violated.
* Deliberate circumvention of computer security systems.
* Unauthorized access to or modification of
o programs (see software cracking and hacking).
O data.
* Intellectual property theft, including software piracy.
* Industrial espionage by means of access to or theft of computer materials.
* Identity theft where this is accomplished by use of fraudulent computer
transactions.
* Writing or spreading computer viruses or worms.
* Salami slicing is the practice of stealing money repeatedly in extremely small
quantities
* Denial-of-service attack, where company websites are flooded with service
requests and their website is overloaded and either slowed or crashes completely
* Making and digitally distributing child pornography
Now take Examples which one you like and give very briefly
the methods that can be used to minimize the ill effects of
listed crimes.

By Hadiya
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
Cyber crime is the leveraging of a target's computers and information, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruptio internet. Cyber crime is the leveraging of a target's computers and information, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruption of infrastructure.
Issues surrounding computer crime have become high-profile, particularly those
surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming.
There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted,
lawfully or otherwise.
   People started to take interest in cyber crime the late 1980s. As the year 2000 approached, the fear and uncertainty about the millennium bug heightened and interest in potential cyber terrorist attacks also increased. However, although the millennium bug was by no means a terrorist attack or plot against the world or the United States, it did act as a catalyst in sparking the fears of a possibly large-scale devastating cyber-attack. Commentators noted that many of the facts of such incidents seemed to change, often with exaggerated media reports.

One example of cyber terrorists, in May 2007 Estonia was subjected to a mass cyber-attack in the wake of the removal of a Russian World War II war memorial from downtown Tallinn. The attack was a distributed denial-of-service attack in which selected sites were bombarded with traffic in order to force them offline; nearly all Estonian government ministry networks as well as two major Estonian bank networks were knocked offline; in addition, the political party website of Estonia's current Prime Minister Andrus An sip featured a counterfeit letter of apology from An sip for removing the memorial statue. Despite speculation that the attack had been coordinated by the Russian government, Estonia's defense minister admitted he had no evidence linking cyber attacks to Russian authorities. Russia called accusations of its involvement "unfounded," and neither NATO nor European experts were able to find any proof of official Russian government participation. In January 2008 a man from Estonia was convicted for launching the attacks against the Estonian Reform Party website and fined.

In 1999 hackers attacked NATO computers. The computers flooded them with email and hit them with a denial of service (DoS). The hackers were protesting against the NATO bombings in Kosovo. Businesses, public organizations and academic institutions were bombarded with highly politicized emails containing viruses from other European countries.

Computer crime encompasses a broad range of potentially illegal activities. Generally,
however, it may be divided into one of two types of categories:
(1) crimes that target computer networks or devices directly;
(2) crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices, the primary target of which is
independent of the computer network or device.

Methods of minimizing to Cyber terrorism:

1. Employ Strong Passwords.
As simple as this sound, it is one of the most overlooked methods of keeping systems safe. There are a number of freely available tools that 'guess' passwords -- a very common technique referred to as 'brute force cracking.' These programs work by repeatedly attempting to log in as a known user and supplying different passwords until successful. Many of these cracking algorithms are very sophisticated and supply the most commonly used passwords first, then start going through dictionary words. Passwords should always be in mixed case and contain at least one number and one special character.

2. Keep Software up to Date.
This is important on all systems. As malicious users discover vulnerabilities in different operating system components or applications, software vendors release patches to these components which mitigate or eliminate these threats. All systems should be regularly updated with vendor patches in order to maintain security. There are a number of services that offer continual update alerts via email.
3. Disable Unnecessary Applications and Services.
Malicious users often gain access to systems at unexpected entry points. One common technique is to scan a system for all active applications or ports and use vulnerable applications as an entry point. These applications may not be necessary to the system's operation. In order to minimize the threat against any system, a prudent user should disable all unnecessary applications or services.
4. Beware of Mail Attachments.
This is one of the most common methods of causing damage. Many email applications today allow for the execution of code in email attachments. Many 'worms' have been released in this manner over the past few years, with effects ranging from relatively harmless propagation of the worm to massive file damage. Users should disable features of their mail application that allow for indiscriminate execution of active code attachments and use a reliable virus scanner that understands email attachments.
Brief definition of hackers  
A hacker is someone who gains unauthorized access to a computer system. Many hackers just like the challenge of breaking through a computer security system but not all hackers are harmless. It must also be said that not all hackers are bad. Government and huge companies use hackers to maintain their security systems. People normally confuse hackers with crackers. While hackers crack the code of passwords to hack into a security system, crackers crack the code of software to bypass its security mechanisms like copyright protection etc. Hacking and cracking are two different methods, but hackers normally possess cracking skills and crackers, hackings skills. Also note that not all hackers are humans. You also get computerized hackers, but they are developed by humans of course.
How can hackers break into my computer system and how do I keep them out?
Hackers gain access to your computer through unguarded ports in your network system. You will need a firewall or anti-hacker software to stop them in their tracks. To prevent hackers from breaching your computer system, use the Firewalls and in trussing Detection Software listed on our Cyber Security Software page.
N of infrastructure.

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